Bad for Species, Bad for People: What’s Wrong with the Endangered Species Act and How to Fix It

Policy Reports | Energy and Natural Resources

No. 303
Saturday, September 01, 2007
by Brian Seasholes


  1. Until a recent Supreme Court decision, the ESA also required all federal agencies, and recipients of federal funds or permits, to ensure that their actions did not harm threatened or endangered species, even if, in order to prevent harm to a species, they were unable to carry out their primary responsibilities under other laws. See National Association of Home Builders v. Defenders of Wildlife (2007) 551 U.S. 340; Environmental Protection Agency v. Defenders of Wildlife (2007) 551 U.S. 549.
  2. Members of Congress “professed not to understand at the time of passage that this law might raise questions about irrigation projects, timber harvests, the dredging of ports, or the generation of electricity.” See Lynn A. Greenwalt, “Reflections on the Power and Potential of the Endangered Species Act,” Endangered Species Update, Vol. 5, No. 10, August 1988, page 7.
  3. TVA v. Hill (1978) 437 U.S. 153.
  4. “Endangered Species Act: Information on Species Protection on Nonfederal Lands,” United States General Accounting Office, GAO/RCED-95-16, 1994.
  5. Michael Bean, “Ecosystem Approaches to Fish and Wildlife Conservation: ‘Rediscovering the Land Ethic,'” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Office of Training and Education Seminar Series, Arlington, Va., November 3, 1994.
  6. Benjamin Cone, Jr., Prepared Statement, Hearing before the Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives, Task Force on Private Property Rights, June 13, 1995, Washington, D.C.
  7. Dean Leuck and Jeffrey A. Michael, “Preemptive Habitat Destruction Under the Endangered Species Act,” Journal of Law and Economics, Vol. 46, No. 1, December 2003.
  8. “Recovery Plan for the Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis),” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Second Revision, January 2003. Available at
  9. Daowei Zhang and Warren A. Flick, “Sticks, Carrots, and Reforestation Investment,” Land Economics, Vol. 77, No. 3, August 2001, pages 443-456.
  10. Daowei Zhang, “Endangered Species and Timber Harvesting: the Case of Red-Cockaded Woodpeckers,” Economic Inquiry, Vol. 42, No. 1, January 2004, pages 150-165.
  11. Ibid.
  12. Federal Register, Vol. 60, February 17, 1995, pages 9,483-9,527.
  13. Eric Pryne, “A Tale of Two Tree Farmers,” Seattle Times, June 19, 1995, page 1.
  14. Glenn E. Crellin, “Assessment of Endangered Species Act Enforcement on Real Property Values: A Case Study of Three Washington Counties,” National Association of Realtors, 2002.
  15. The habitat for the vireo is 33,685,760 acres and for the warbler is 22,020,480 acres. “Black-capped Vireo Recovery Plan,” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1991; “Golden-cheeked Warbler Recovery Plan,” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 1992.
  16. Margaret Rector, testimony before the Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives, Oversight Hearing on the Implementation of the Endangered Species Act, March 20, 1995.
  17. The negative impacts of the ESA in the Hill Country have been observed by federal and state experts. For example, Sam Hamilton, then FWS administrator for Texas, said, “The incentives are wrong here. If I have a rare metal on my property, its value goes up. But if a rare bird occupies the land, its value disappears.” See Betsy Carpenter, “The Best Laid Plans,” U.S. News and World Report, Vol. 115, No. 13, October 1993, page 89. Hamilton's 1993 observation was ironic, given that his aggressive implementation of the ESA helped create the very conditions he decried. The effects of Hamilton's approach were apparent not only in decreased land values but also habitat destruction. One of the foremost authorities on the ESA in Texas, Larry McKinney, Director of Resource Protection for the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, said, “I am convinced that more habitat for the black-capped vireo, and especially the golden-cheeked warbler, has been lost in those areas of Texas since the listing of these birds than would have been lost without the ESA at all.” See Larry McKinney, “Reauthorizing the Endangered Species Act: Incentives for Rural Landowners,” in Wendy Hudson, ed., Building Economic Incentives Into the Endangered Species Act (Washington, D.C.: Defenders of Wildlife, May 1994), page 74.
  18. Charles E. Gilliland, “An Analysis of the Impact of the Endangered Species Act on Texas Rural Land Values,” Technical Report 1091, Real Estate Center (Texas A&M University), 1995.
  19. Ted C. Jones, Brittany A. Burnam, Clinton H. Harrington and Roger J. Pelton, “Impact of Habitat Protection on Property Values,” Tierra Grande (Journal of the Real Estate Center at Texas A&M University), Vol. 2, No. 3, October 1993, pages 942-947.
  20. David Tschetter, “The Abuses of the Endangered Species Act: The So-Called Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse,” testimony before the Committee on Resources, U.S. House of Representatives, September 18, 2006.
  21. “Final Environmental Assessment: Designation of Critical Habitat for Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei),” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ecological Services Field Office, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 2003.
  22. Amara Brook, Michaela Zint and Raymond De Young, “Landowners' Responses to and Endangered Species Act Listing and Implications for Encouraging Conservation,” Conservation Biology, Vol. 17, No. 6, December 2003, pages 1,638-649.
  23. Ibid, page 1,644.
  24. David G. Cameron, “Endangered Species Act of the Committee on Resources,” hearing before the Task Force on the House of Representatives, May 25, 1995: “My recollections of the horror stories abundant in stockmen's journals about the hazards of hosting an endangered species didn't help, and I sadly bowed out,” Cameron stated. “It seemed a good deed would probably be punished.” Cameron's reactions are widely shared in rural areas, where word of mouth and publications such as agricultural periodicals are important means by which people obtain news. “How many times has my story been repeated?” Cameron asked while testifying before Congress. “How often has the ESA impeded biological restoration?...Reasonable property owners are frightened and angry at you, the government, for managing with brick bats.”
  25. Mark W. Schwartz, “Choosing the appropriate scale of reserves for conservation,” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, Vol. 30, 1999, pages 83-108.
  26. National Wildlife Federation “Endangered Species Act: Myths and Facts,” 2006. Available at Accessed April 17, 2007.
  27. National Audubon Society, “Endangered Species Act: 10 Myths & Facts,” undated. Available at
  28. Although the rate of species extinction worldwide has greatly accelerated, the rate of increase has been much greater in the tropics, where most species exist, than in temperate regions such as the United States. (Russell A. Mittermeier et al., Hotspots Revisited: Earth's Biologically Richest and Most Endangered Terrestrial Ecoregions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005)).
  29. National Wildlife Federation, “Endangered Species Act: Myths and Facts,” 2006. Available at
  30. The 1988 ESA amendments require the FWS to report to Congress biennially on the status of species listed under the Act. The FWS's survey consists of four questions: a) What is the species' population trend (increasing, decreasing, stable, unknown)? b) Is the species being propagated in captivity? c) Has the species' recovery priority status changed? and d) What percentage of recovery goals have been achieved?
  31. David S. Wilcove, The Condor's Shadow: The Loss and Recovery of Wildlife in America (New York: W.H. Freeman and Company, 1999), page 232; National Research Council, Science and the Endangered Species Act (Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995), page 158; Charles C. Mann and Mark L. Plummer, Noah's Choice: The Future of Endangered Species (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995), pages 243-245.
  32. Technically, only 18 species have been claimed as recovered. The FWS lists 46 species as delisted because they count the grey wolf in the Upper Midwest twice, once in Minnesota and once for what the agency refers to as the “Western Great Lakes DPS (Distinct Population Segment).” This was done for regulatory purposes, not because two separate species, or populations, were delisted. So the two should be combined, thus bringing the total to 45 species.
  33. L. J.Blus et al.,“Eggshell thinning in the brown pelican: implications of DDE,” Bioscience, Vol. 21, 1971, pages 1,213-15; L.J.Blus et al., “Logarithmic relationship of DDE residues to eggshell thinning,” Nature, Vol. 235, 1972, pages 376-77; L. J. Blus et al., “Further analysis of the logarithmic relationship of DDE residues to eggshell thinning,” Nature, Vol. 240, 1972, pages 164-66; J.W. Grier, “Reproduction, organochlorines, and mercury in northwestern Ontario bald eagles,” Canadian Field Naturalist, Vol. 88, 1974, pages 469-475; J.L. Lincer, “DDE-induced eggshell thinning in the American Kestel: a comparison of the field situation and laboratory results,” Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 12, 1975, pages 781-793; A.S. Cooke, “Changes in eggshell characteristics of the Sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus) and Peregrine (Falco peregrinus) associated with exposure to environmental pollutants during recent decades,” Journal of Zoolology, Vol. 187, 1979, pages 245-263; David B. Peakall and Lloyd F. Kiff, “Eggshell thinning and DDE residue levels among peregrine falcons Falco peregrinus: A global perspective,” Ibis, Vol. 121, No. 2, 1979, pages 200-204; L.J. Blus, “Further interpretation of the relation of organochlorine residues in Brown Pelican eggs to reproductive success,” Environmental Pollution (Series A), Vol. 28, 1982, pages 15-23; J.W. Grier, “Ban of DDT and subsequent recovery of reproduction in bald eagles,” Science, Vol. 218, 1982, pages 1,232-1,235; R.W. Risebrough, “Pesticides and bird populations,” Current Ornitholog, Vol. 3, 1986, pages 397-427; Ian C.T. Nisbet, “Organochlorines, reproductive impairment, and declines in Bald Eagles Haliaeetus leucocephalus populations: mechanisms and dose relationships,” in B.U. Meyburg and R.D. Chancellor, eds., Raptors in the modern world (Berlin, Germany: World Working Group for Birds of Prey, 1989), pages 483-489; S.N.Wiemeyer, C.M. Bunck and C.J. Stafford, “Environmental contaminants in bald eagle eggs — 1980-84 — and further interpretations of relationships to productivity and shell thickness,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 24, pages 213-227.
  34. Ted Joanen, “Population Status and Distribution of Alligators in the Southeastern United States,” Southeastern Endangered Species Workshop, Tallahassee, Fla., September, 1974.
  35. Thomas A. Lewis, “Searching for Truth in Alligator Country,” National Wildlife, Vol. 25. No. 5, 1987, page 14; Tommy C. Hines, “The Past and Present Status of the Alligator in Florida,” Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, Vol. 33, 1979, pages 224-232.
  36. Federal Register, Vol. 41, April 8, 1976, pages 14,886-14,888.
  37. Delisted (40 Federal Register 44412-44429, 9/26/75) but as a technicality retained as Threatened by Similarity of Appearance, in Cameron, Vermillion and Calcasieu Parishes in LA due to sufficient population sizes; Downlisted (42 Federal Register 2071-2076, 1/10/77) in FL and certain coastal areas of GA, LA, SC, TX, from endangered to the less imperiled status of threatened; Delisted (44 Federal Register 37170-037172, 6/25/79) but as a technicality retained as Threatened by Similarity of Appearance, in 9 Louisiana Parishes; Iberia, St. Mary, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. Charles, Jefferson, Plaquemines, St. Bernard and St. Tammany; Delisted (46 Federal Register 40664-40669, 8/10/81), but as a technicality retained as Threatened by Similarity of Appearance, in the rest of Louisiana, 52 Parishes, where the alligator was still classified as Endangered or Threatened; Delisted (48 Federal Register 46332-46336, 10/12/83, but as a technicality retained as Threatened due to Similarity of Appearance, in Texas; Delisted (50 FR 25672-25678, 6/20/85), but as a technicality retained as Threatened due to Similarity of Appearance, in Florida. Delisted (52 FR 21059-21064m 6/4/87) but as a technicality retained as Threatened due to Similarity of Appearance throughout the remainder of its range—AL, AR, GA, MS, NC, SC, OK.
  38. The claim “is quite phenomenal when one considers the age of sexual maturity is 10 years,” according to Ted Joanen and Larry McNease, then biologists with the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, and two of the foremost experts on the biology and conservation of the alligator. “The original estimate used to justify the alligator being on the endangered species list must have been grossly underestimated” (Ted Joanen and Larry McNease, “American Alligator Management in Louisiana and Federal Regulations,” Third Annual SSAR Regional Herpetological Societies Conference, Knoxville, Tenn., August 12, 1979).
  39. According to Tommy C. Hines, “The Lacy Act was amended in 1969 and in force by January 1970. This amendment provided conservation agencies with a law to control interstate movement of alligator hides for the first time. During 1970 movement of alligator hides out of Florida was reduced and by 1971 virtually stopped.” See Tommy C. Hines, “The Past and Present Status of the Alligator in Florida,” Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies, Vol. 33, pages 224-232. As Ted Joanen and Larry McNease of the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries stated about the Lacy Act amendment: “This is probably the most important piece of wildlife legislation implemented in modern times. It opened up new areas of law enforcement and in general, bridged the gap between state and federal alligator protection efforts. The State of Louisiana supported, and was the catalyst for amending the Lacy Act to cover alligators as a means of providing protection for these reptiles.” See Ted Joanen and Larry McNease, “American Alligator Management in Louisiana and Federal Regulations,” paper presented at the Third Annual SSAR Regional Herpetological Societies Conference, Knoxville, Tenn., August 12, 1979, page 4.
  40. H. Douglas Pratt, Phillip L. Bruner and Delwyn G. Berrett, “America's unknown avifauna: the birds of the Mariana islands,” American Birds, Vol. 33, No. 3, page 231; H. Douglas Pratt, John Engbring, Phillip L. Bruner and Delwyn C. Berrett, “Notes on the Taxonomy, Natural History, and Status of the Resident Birds of Palau,” The Condor, Vol. 82, No. 2, page 126; John Engbring and H. Douglas Pratt, “Endangered Birds in Micronesia: Their History, Status, and Future Prospects,” in Stanley A. Temple, ed., Bird Conservation 2 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985); J.Engbring, F. Ramsey and V. Wildman, “Micronesian forest bird survey, 1982: Saipan, Tinian, Agiguan, and Rota,” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, report, page 143.
  41. Kerry O'Brien, ABC News Australia, September 16. 2003; available at; Federal Register, Vol. 60, March 9, 1995, page 12,891.
  42. Tony Pople and Gordon Grigg, Commercial Harvesting of Kangaroos in Australia (Environment Australia: Canberra, 1999), Figure 15b. Available at
  43. Federal Register, Vol. 60, March 9, 1995, page 12,891.
  44. Tim Thwaites, David Mussred, Steven Dickman and Rex Graham, “Everything You Always Wanted to Know about Kangaroos,” International Wildlife, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1997, page 39. “The international response to this [large-scale commercial] killing [of 1-3 million kangaroos per year] — campaigns in North America and Europe to place kangaroos on various list of endangered species — never ceases to puzzle Australians,” notes the National Wildlife Federation. “They know that a combination of the provision of well water for livestock in Australia's arid outback and the removal of dingos [wild dogs] has increased kangaroo numbers. Although ‘roo numbers vary greatly depending on rainfall, the long-term average population of reds and greys is about 20 million. And most marsupial biologists agree that figure is as high as it has ever been.”
  45. Charles C. Mann and Mark L. Plummer, Noah's Choice: The Future of Endangered Species (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995), pages 162-163.
  46. According to Cade and Burnham, founder and former president, respectively, of the Peregrine Fund, and two of the foremost experts on the falcon's conservation, “[P]rotection by the ESA for the Peregrine provided no measurable benefit to recovery of the species and [the Act] was a regular, if not constant, obstacle because of its emphasis on law enforcement and permitting,” William Burnham and Tom Cade, Return of the Peregrine (Boise, Idaho: The Peregrine Fund), October 2003, page 277.
  47. Brian Seasholes, “The Bald Eagle, DDT, and the Endangered Species Act: Examining the Bald Eagle's Recovery in the Contiguous 48 States,” Reason Foundation, Policy Brief No. 63, June 2007. Available at
  48. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 50, Chapter 17, Part 3, 1988. The ESA defines “to take” as meaning “to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to attempt to engage in any such conduct.”
  49. News Release, “Administration's New Assurance Policy Tells Landowners: ‘No Surprises' in Endangered Species Planning,” U.S. Department of the Interior, August 11, 1994.
  50. Federal Register, Vol. 63, February 23, 1998, pages 8,859-8,873.
  51. Eric Pryne, “Timberland-Use Pact a Landmark — Murray Pacific Agreement Helps Nature, Economy,” Seattle Times, June 27, 1995 page B1.
  52. Ibid. Katy McGinty, chair of the President's Council on Environmental Quality during the Clinton Administration, hailed the HCP as, “a new way of doing business . . . saying yes to partnerships and to progress.”
  53. Leslie Brown, “Cutting a Clear New Path: Timber Companies Developing Habitat Conservation Plans Earn Government Approval to Harvest More Timber, but Critics Claim it's a Danger to the Endangered Species Act,” News Tribune (Tacoma, Washington), November 2, 1997, page G2.
  54. Ibid.
  55. “Fish and Wildlife Service Announces Private Stewardship Grants to Landowners for Endangered Species Conservation,” U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, News Release, August 11, 2005.
  56. Mollie Beattie, “Interview with Patricia Peak Klintberg,” Beef Today, April 1995, page 15.
  57. Brian Czech and Paul L. Krausman, “Public Opinion and Endangered Species Conservation and Policy,” Society and Natural Resources, Vol. 12, No. 5, 1999, pages 469-479.
  58. Ike Sugg, “Where the Buffalo Roam, and Why,” Exotic Wildlife (the magazine of the Exotic Wildlife Association), January/February 1999.
  59. The National Bison Association, “Industry Data & Statistics,” undated. Available at
  60. Brian Seasholes, “The Wood Duck,” Center for Private Conservation, 1997.
  61. The North American Bluebird Society. Available at
  62. Tom J. Cade and William Burnham. “Letter to Jack Ward Thomas,” September 28, 1990.
  63. Jack Ward Thomas, “Letter to William Burnham,” October 4, 1990.
  64. Federal Register, Vol. 49, August 7, 1984, pages 31,418-31,421.
  65. Gena K. Janssen and Paula S. Williamson, “Encouraging Conservation of Endangered Plants on Private Lands: A Case Study of Johnston's Frankenia (Frankenia johnstonii), an Endangered South Texas Subshrub,” Southwestern Rare and Endangered Plants, Proceedings of the Second Conference, Flagstaff, Arizona, September 11-14 1995, “General Technical Report RM-GTR-283,” Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station (Fort Collins, Colo.), U.S. Forest Service, page 1.
  66. Janssen and Williamson, 1995.
  67. Federal Register, Vol. 68, May 22, 2003, pages 27,961-27,969.
  68. Ibid.
  69. David Anderson and Richard Grove, eds., Conservation in Africa: People, Policies and Practice (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); Graham Child, “Managing Wildlife Successfully in Zimbabwe,” Oryx, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1995, pages 171-177; Raymond F. Dasmann, “Game Ranching in African Land-Use Planning,” Bulletin of the Epizootic Diseases of Africa, Vol. 10, 1962, pages 13-17; John M. Mackenzie, The Empire of Nature: Hunting, Conservation and British Imperialism (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988); Stuart A. Marks, The Imperial Lion: Human Dimensions of Wildlife Management in Central Africa (Boulder, Westview Press, 1984); R. Mutwira, “Southern Rhodesia Wildlife Policy: A Question of Condoning Game Slaughter?” Journal of Southern African Studies, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1989, pages 250-262; Thane Riney, “The International Importance of African Wildlife,” Unasylva, Vol. 15, No. 2, 1961, pages 75-80.
  70. Raymond F. Dasmann, African Game Ranching, (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1964); Ramachandra Guha, “The Authoritarian Biologist and the Arrogance of Anti-Humanism: Wildlife Conservation in the Third World,” The Ecologist, Vol. 27, No. 1, 1997, pages 14-20; Dale Lewis, Gilson B. Kaweche and Ackim Mwenya, “Wildlife Conservation Outside Protected Areas — Lessons from and Experiment in Zambia,” Conservation Biology, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1990, pages 171-180; Dale Lewis and Nick Carter, eds., Voices from Africa: Local Perspectives on Conservation (Washington, D.C.: World Wildlife Fund, 1993); Roderick P. Neumann, Imposing Wilderness: Struggles over Livelihood and Preservation in Africa (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998); Nancy L. Peluso, “Coercing Conservation: The Politics of State Resource Control,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 3, No 2, 1993, pages 199-217.
  71. Graham Child, Wildlife and People: the Zimbabwean Success (Harare: Wisdom Foundation, 1995); Clark C. Gibson, Politicians and Poachers: The Political Economy of Wildlife Policy in Africa (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999); Marks, The Imperial Lion, 1984; David Western and R. Michael Wright, “The Background to Community-based Conservation,” in D. Western, R. M. Wright and S. C. Strum, eds., Natural Connections: Perspectives in Community-based Conservation (Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1994), pages 1-12.
  72. Jonathan S. Adams and Thomas O. McShane, The Myth of Wild Africa: Conservation Without Illusion (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996); David H.M. Cumming, “Wildlife Products and the Marketplace: A View from Southern Africa,” WWF Multispecies Animal Production Systems Project (Harare, Zimbabwe), Project Paper No. 12, 1990; David H.M. Cumming, “Developments in Game Ranching and Wildlife Utilization in East and Southern Africa,” WWF Multispecies Animal Production Systems Project (Harare, Zimbabwe), Project Paper No. 13, 1990; Graham Child, “The Role of Community-Based Wild Resource Management in Zimbabwe,” Biodiversity and Conservation, Vol. 5, 1996, pages 355-367.
  73. Graham Child, Wildlife and People: The Zimbabwean Success (Harare, Zimbabwe: Wisdom Foundation, 1995); David H.M. Cumming, “Developments in Game Ranching,” 1991; Gordon Matzke and Nontokozo Nabane, “Outcomes of a Community Controlled Wildlife Utilization Program in a Zambezi Valley Community,” Human Ecology, Vol. 24, No. 1, 1996, pages 65-85; David Hulme and Marshall Murphree, “Community Conservation in Africa: An Introduction,” in African Wildlife & Livelihoods: The Promise and Performance of Community Conservation (Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann, 2001) pages 1-8; Brian T.B. Jones, “Community-based Natural Resource Management in Botswana and Namibia: an Inventory and Preliminary Analysis of Progress,” International Institute for Environment and Development, Evaluating Eden Series, Discussion Paper No. 6, 1999; Marshall M. Murphree, “Decentralizing the Proprietorship of Wildlife Resources in Zimbabwe's Communal Lands,” Centre for Applied Social Studies (University of Zimbabwe), 1990; John H. Peterson Jr., “A Proto-CAMPFIRE Initiative in Mahenye Ward, Chipinge District: Development of a Wildlife Utilization Programme in Response to Community Needs,” Centre for Applied Social Science (University of Zimbabwe), 1991; A.N. Songorwa, “Community-Based Wildlife Management (CWM) in Tanzania: Are the Communities Interested?” World Development, Vol. 12, 1999, pages 2,061-2,079.
  74. Clark C. Gibson and Stuart A. Marks, “Transforming Rural Hunters into Conservationists: An Assessment of Community-Based Wildlife Management Programs in Africa,” World Development, Vol. 23, No. 6, 1995, pages 941-957; Agnes Kiss, “Living With Wildlife: Wildlife Resource Management with Local Participation in Africa,” World Bank (Africa Technical Department Series), Technical Paper No. 150, 1990; Stephen J. Thomas, “The Legacy of Dualism and Decision-Making: The Prospects for Local Institutional Development in CAMPFIRE,” Centre for Applied Social Sciences (University of Zimbabwe), 1991.
  75. Brian Child, “Building the CAMPFIRE Paradigm,” PERC Reports, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2004, pages 3-6.
  76. David Western, Samantha Russell and Kamweti Mutu, “The Status of Wildlife in Kenya's Protected and Non-Protected Areas,” a paper commissioned by Kenya's Wildlife Policy Review Team and presented at the First Stateholders Symposium of the Wildlife Policy and Legislation Review, African Conservation Center, Nairobi, Kenya, September 27-28, 2006. Available at
  77. L.M. Campbell, “Use Them or Lose Them: Conservation and the Consumptive Use of Marine Turtle Eggs at Ostional, Costa Rica,” Environmental Conservation, Vol. 25, No. 4, 1998, pages 305-19.
  78. Tinker Ready. “Factoring Humans into the Environmental Picture,” dukenvironment, Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences, Duke University, spring 2004, pages 24-26. Available at Accessed April 30, 2007.
  79. Douglas M. Crowe and Jeff Shryer, “Eco-colonialism,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, Vol. 23, No. 1, spring 1995, pages 26-30.
  80. J.J. Blanc et al., “African Elephant Status Report: An Update from the African Elephant Database,” IUCN Species Survival Commission, No. 33, 2007.
  81. Stephen R. Edwards, “Sustainable Conservation By and For the People,” in Richard Littell, ed., Endangered and Other Protected Species: Federal Law and Regulation (Washington, D.C.: BNA Books, 1992), pages vii-viii.
  82. The ESA is “widely regarded as a model to which the world aspires,” claims Michael Bean of Environmental Defense; see Anon., “Endangered Species Act Faces Tough Test in Reauthorization, EDF Official Says,” BNA Environmental Law Update, March 5, 1992. Bean has repeatedly made this claim: “The Endangered Species Act is a very significant piece of legislation, a model for the rest of the world;” see Hugh Dellios, “Environmental act endangered as private landowners cry foul,” Chicago Tribune, May 29, 1995. “The Act's effectiveness is admired by conservation officials in countries around the world;” see Michael J. Bean “Endangered Species Act Reform Rhetoric and Reality,” EDF Letter, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1994, page 4. “In enacting ESA, the United States sent a strong message to the world by putting our nation on the forefront of protecting wildlife,” claimed U.S. Rep. John Dingell, who voted for the ESA in 1973; see John Dingell, “GOP Moves Imperil Dynamic, Flexible, Common-Sense law,” Rocky Mountain News, December 27, 2003.

Read Article as PDF